I have not produced references to prove my every statement in this pamphlet. For those interested in pursuing some of the issues discussed above, however, I have provided below a guide to the main works that have influenced the views presented here.

Origins of Socialism

For the history of the period, see Eric Hobsbawn, The Age of Revolution. Albert Soboul's The French Reuolutlon 1787-1799 is the leading treatment in English of the popular struggles that made up the French Revolution. George Lichtheim's two books, A Short History of Socialism and The Origins of Socialism are the most reliable guides to early socialist thought.


The best single introduction to Marx's political work and thought is Alex Callinicos' The Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx. Hal Draper's brilliant work, Karl Marx's Theory of Reuolution, is an invaluable but sometimes difficult source. I should also record here a debt of inspriation of a now-out-of-print pamphlet by Draper, The Two Souls of Socialism. Of course there is no substitute for reading the works of Marx and Engels themselves.

The Russian Revolution

John Reed's Ten Days That Shook the World remains the best introduction. Leon Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution is a superb and penetrating account. Victor Serge's Year One of the Russian Reuolution is excellent. On the building of the Bolshevik party and the years of struggle that led up to the revolution, read Steve Wright's pamphlet, Russia: The Making of the Revolution. On the decline of the revolution see Alan Gibbons, How the Russian Revolution Was Lost.


The most important single work by Lenin is his pamphlet State and Revolution which is widely available in various editions. Tony Cliff's four volume biography, Lenin, is invaluable. Alfred Rosmer's work Moscow Under Lenin, also known as Lenin's Moscow, is insightful. For Lenin's opposition to Stalin see Moshe Lewin, Lenin's Last Struggle.


There are now many studies of the horrors of Stalinism. Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed is still an important treatment, as is Victor Serge's From Lenin to Stalin. The best theoretical treatment of Stalinist Russia is Tony Cliff's classic, State Capitalism in Russia. Chris Harman's Class Struggles in Eastern Europe develops the state capitalist analysis for the eastern European states. Kuron and Modzelewski's open letter, also reprinted as Solidarnosc: The Missing Link? is invaluable. Nigel Harris' The Mandate of Heaven: Marx and Mao in Modern China is a masterful treatment of state capitalism in China. The best short introduction to the theory of state capitalism is Abbie Bakan's The Great Lie.


In addition to The History of the Russian Revolution and The Revolution Betrayed, Trotsky's most important writings include Results and Prospects and The Permanent Revolution. Duncan Hallas' Trotsky's Marxism is the best overall treatment of the strengths and weaknesses of Trotsky's thought.

A Further Note

The role of women in the working class and socialist movement is still largely ignored in most writings on these periods. Tony Cliff's Class Struggle and Women's Liberation represents an attempt to fill this gap. Most of these books are still in print and are available through our bookservice by mail order--see inside back cover.

These and many more publications are available from local branches of the organisations listed inside the front cover of this pamphlet, or by post from: