close endnotes

* I am grateful for the information, advice, comments or criticism offered by Eric Petersen, Jim George, Mike McKinley, Jock Collins, Kelvin Rowley, Bob Gould, an anonymous Labour History referee and, as always, Mary Gorman when I was preparing this article.

1 S. Cowen 'Australia's Policy towards Asia' in Australian Institute of Political Science Communism in Asia: A Threat to Australia? Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1967, p. 168.

2 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates (CPD) (H of R) vol. 45, 29-4-65 pp. 1061. Also CPD (H of R) vol. 44 10-11-64, p. 2715-2718 which provides a rationale for forward defence, the SEATO and ANZUS treaties and the introduction of conscription.

3 M. Saunders 'The ALP's Response to the Anti-Vietnam War Movement: 1965-73' Labour History 44, May 1983, p. 79.

4 CPD (H of R) vol. 46 4-5-65, p. 1102. For a very clear expression of his supp. ort for the US Alliance, which did not alter after Australian troops were committed, and preparedness to condone the dispatch of additional Australian 'instructors' to Vietnam in June 1964 see A. Calwell The Challenge before Us Australian Labor Party, Canberra 1964 pp. 9, 11.

5 A. Calwell CPD (H of R) vol 45. 23-3-65, p. 242.

6 CPD (H of R) 38 2-4-63, p. 266.

7 Kolko identifies the hubris of imperial states in their overconfidence in their own power. In Vietnam, 'America, locked into its mission to control the broad contours of the world's political and socioeconomic development, had set for itself inherently unobtainable political objectives.' 'Despite America's many real successes in imposing its hegemony elsewhere, Vietnam exposed the ultimate constraints on its power in the modern era: its internal tensions, the contradictions between over involvement in one nation and its interests and ambitions elsewhere, and its material limits.' G. Kolko Vietnam: Anatomy of a War 1940-1975 Unwin Hyman, London 1987 pp. 545, 547.

8 G. Evans and B. Grant Australia's Foreign Relations Melbourne University Press, Melbourne 1991, p. 204. The Communist Party drew attention to the common assumptions of Government and Opposition at the time, L. Aarons 'Menzies' Undeclared War' Communist Review June 1965, p. 130-131. In some quarters of the Department of External Affairs during 1964 there was also concern about how much Australia or the USA could do about worsening political and military developments in Vietnam David Jenkins 'The year tensions over Indonesia ran high' Sydney Morning Herald 2 January 1995, p. 9.

9 A. Calwell CPD (H of R) vol. 46 4-5-65 pp. 1102-1107. Also see T. Uren, a prominent member of the left from NSW, CPD (H of R) vol. 45 25-3-65, p. 347, CPD (H of R) vol. 50 22-3-66 pp. 432, 435 and even as late as 1968, CPD (H of R) vol. 58 28-3-68, p. 621.

10 'We want the American presence, strong and powerful, in Asia and the Pacific ... It is precisely because we do not want America to be humiliated, because we want America to be in a position to negotiate from strength, that we are concerned about the danger of her present course' CPD (H of R) vol. 45 23-3-65, p. 241; CPD (H of R) 46 29-4-65 pp. 1107. Also Allan Fraser CPD (H of R) vol. 47 18-8-65, p. 206. For similar views outside Parliament see, for example, University Study Group on Vietnam Vietnam and Australia Sydney 1966, p. 134 whose proposals for resolving the Indochinese problem were very similar to Labor's in 1966.

11 See E. G. Whitlam Australia-Base or Bridge? Evatt Memorial Lecture 1966 Sydney University Fabian Society, Sydney 1966 pp. 7-9

12 The Victorian Employers' Federation was concerned that conscription might force up wages, J. Murphy Harvest of Fear: A History of Australia's Vietnam War Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1993, p. 116. Murphy's is the most comprehensive general account of the movement against the Vietnam war. Businessman Gordon Barton, the force behind the Liberal Reform Group and Australia Party, also opp. osed Australian involvement in the War, see F. McPherson and R. Whittington 'The Australia Party's Campaign' in H. Mayer (ed.) Labor to Power: Australia's 1972 election Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1973 pp. 88-96 and H. Albinski Politics and Foreign Policy in Australia: The Impact of Vietnam and Conscription Duke University Press, Durham 1970 pp. 54-55.

13 K. Beazley 'Federal Labor and the Vietnam Commitment' in P. King (ed.) Australia's Vietnam George Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1983, p. 51. On desirable policies in Vietnam see Whitlam Australia-Base or Bridge.

14 E. G. Whitlam Beyond Vietnam: Australia's Regional Responsibility Victorian Fabian Society Pamphlet 17, Melbourne 1968, p. 19

15 So, for example, the NSW left Steering Committee faction expelled Bob Gould was from for moving for a return to the policy under Calwell at the 1967 State ALP Conference, G. Langley A Decade of Dissent Allen and Unwin, Melbourne 1992, p. 39.

16 Socialist and Industrial Labor August 1969, p. 1.

17 Whitlam Beyond Vietnam, p. 22, or as Humphrey McQueen put it, 'It is not a question of the US imperialists telling Whitlam et al to be a counterrevolutionary; rather it is a question of Whitlam et al telling the imperialists how to be more effective at it. There is no disagreement over ends, only over means,' 'Living Off Asia' Arena 26 1971, p. 15.

18 J. Cairns Living with Asia Lansdowne, Melbourne 1965 pp. 174, 41, 97.

19 Cairns Living with Asia pp. 111, 127, 115. Also see J. Cairns The Eagle and the Lotus: Western Intervention in Vietnam 1847-1971 Lansdowne, Melbourne 1971 pp. ix, xi

20 See The Eagle and the Lotus pp. 75, 77, 230.

21 J. Cairns CPD (H of R) vol. 44 pp. 3097-3098; Living with Asia, pp. 99-100; 'Foreign Policy after Vietnam' in Association for International Co-operation and Disarmament The Asian Revolution and Australia Sydney 1969, a collection of papers presented at a conference in October 1968 pp. 182-183. Cairns was not alone on the Labor left in this regard, I. Lasry, President of the Brighton (Victoria) ALP Branch maintained in Socialist and Industrial Labor, the organ of the NSW Labor left, July 1967, p. 6 'that many of those who opp. ose the Vietnam war are utterly convinced that they are the most sincerely pro-American of all Australian citizens'.

22 See K. Rowley 'Dr Cairns on Tariffs: Planning, Imperialism and Socialism' Farrago 29-7-71, p. 4.

23 T. Uren Straight Left Random House, Sydney 1994, p. 189. Also P. Ormonde A Foolish Passionate Man Penguin, Ringwood 1981 pp. 86, 90. He did not, however, favour dilution of the Party's opp. osition to conscription.

24 Cairns 'Foreign Policy after Vietnam', pp. 183.

25 Ormonde A Foolish Passionate Man, p. 126.

26 M. Saunders 'The Vietnam Moratorium Movement in Australia: 1969-73' PhD Thesis, Flinders University 1977.

27 'The ALP as a reforming party is as susceptible to dominant cultural tendencies as the tories' 'A Resilient Perspective' (originally written October 1970) in J. Playford and D. Kirsner Australian Capitalism: Towards a Socialist Critique Penguin, Ringwood 1972 pp. 341, 344. Also see R. Catley 'The Australian-American Alliance' Australian Left Review June-July 1969 pp. 41-50.

28 See R. Kuhn 'Class analysis and the left in Australian history' in R. Kuhn and T. O'Lincoln Class and class conflict in Australia Longman, Melbourne 1996 pp. 145-162.

29 There is, as one would expect, little written evidence of this. But for CPA members in the Labor Party in the late 1930s and 1940s R. Milliss Serpent's Tooth Penguin, Ringwood 1984 pp. 114-5, 120 and for the 1950s see D. Freney A Map of Days: Life on the Left Heinemann, Melbourne 1991 pp. 72, 82, 92. In the union movement Communists and sections of the Labor left worked very closely together in some unions, while Communist led unions sent delegates to State Labor Party Conferences. Labor Clubs at a number of Australian universities and the Australian Student Labor Federation (ASLF) provided a bridge between some left Labor and Communist students during the 1950s and into the 1960s, Ann Curthoys in Langley A Decade of Dissent, pp. 13, 30.

30 R. Lockwood 'Imperial Preference and the Common Market' Communist Review July 1962 pp. 199-200. Subordination to the United States was a constant theme in the CPA's paper, especially in relation to Vietnam see a small proportion of the coverage of the issue in Tribune 18-11-64, p. 2; 17-2-65, p. 4; 12-5-65, p. 2; 28-7-65; p. 2; 21/12/65, p. 1.

31 This is a reference to the shipment of barbed wire to South Vietnam, L. Aarons 'Monopoly & Australia's Foreign Policy (from Report to the March Central Committee meeting) Communist Review May 1963 pp. 156-161. See C. Jones 'Australia and Asia' Communist Review April 1964, p. 98 and M. Robertson 'The Conscription Lottery' Communist Review April 1965, p. 74 ,where the emphasis is on Australia's own imperialist policies rather than its subordination to US imperialism. For the term 'junior partner' in relation to Australia's role in Vietnam see A. Robertson 'War Against Democracy' Communist Review July 1965, p. 164. The term was already being used by the Party in the 1940s. It was echoed in papers presented by J. Blackley and D. Evans, and J. S. Baker to the National Anti-war Conference in Sydney in February 1971 (National Library of Australia J. Jolliffe Papers MS 4969).

32 '"All the way with Australia!"-challenges Calwell' Scope (newspaper of the Victorian Labor left which dominated the Party) 29-9-66, p. 1; 28-7-66, p. 8.

33 L. C. Sharkey 'Central Committee Report to the 20th Congress' Communist Review July 1964 pp. 209-211. Also see C. Jones 'The Anti-Monopoly Front' Communist Review July 1964 pp. 224-229, L. Aarons 'Balance of Payments Crisis' Communist Review May 1965 pp. 99-100. This account of Australian imperialist aspirations was revived to explain Gorton's nationalism, Australian Left Review February-March 1969, p. 6; Bill Gollan 'Foreign Policy Issues' Australian Left Review June-July 1969 pp. 51-60; L. Aarons 'Anti-war Perspectives-A Communist View' Australian Left Review March 1971 pp. 23-24.

34 For example, A. Clunies-Ross 'Vietnam-Australia's Role' in Monash University Labor Club (later a hotbed of militancy) Vietnam Tragedy Melbourne 1965 pp. 3-10; and editorial Farrago 4-10-67.

35 L. Aarons 'Menzies' Undeclared War'.

36 See, for example, M. Salmon 'Doomed Policy in South East Asia' Communist Review July 1965 pp. 167-168; 'Vietnam and Conscription' Communist Review April 1966, p. 83; 'The government blithely acceded to American pressure and first committed an Australian battalion', Australian Left Review October-November 1967, p. 1.

37 J. E. Fitzgerald 'Vietnam ... Queensland maritime workers demonstrate "No diggers for dollars"' Seaman's Journal May 1965, p. 93. When seamen objected to crewing the Boonaroo with its cargo of war materiel for South Vietnam, the union's Federal Secretary explained the Government's response in similar terms, E. V. Elliott 'On Course!' Seamen's Journal May 1966, p. 95. Also see G. Webster 'Conscripts for twenty years?'; Seamen's Journal May 1966, p. 118 and 'What the meetings said' Seamen's Journal March 1967, p. 58.

38 M. O'Brien Vietnam Why Are We There? Sydney, April 1966.

39 See T. O'Lincoln Into the Mainstream: The Decline of Australian Communism Stained Wattle Press, Sydney 1985 pp. 106-112. For a Communist account see A. Robertson 'CPA in the Anti-War Movement' Australian Left Review October-November 1970 pp. 39-49.

40 E. Niit 'The Struggle for Vietnam and the Moral Question' Communist Review November 1965 pp. 313-315; R. Gibson 'Victorian Notes on Vietnam Protest Action' Communist Review January 1966, p. 6; J. R. Hughes 'Morality Vietnam and Conscription' Communist Review May 1966 pp. 117-120; Onlooker 'The continuing ALP crisis' Australian Left Review (the successor to Communist Review which had a somewhat more open editorial policy) June-July 1966 pp. 43-49. A. Robertson 'Foreign policy and its distortion' Australian Left Review August-September 1966 pp. 3-11; M. Salmon 'Foreign Policy-What Now?' Australian Left Review June-July 1968 pp. 52-56. Mavis Robertson highlighted the moralism of much of the anti-war movement and called for politicisation, while pulling her punches on the relationship between Australia and the United States 'Conscription' Australian Left Review June-July 1966 pp. 11-15.

41 For example, even before the escalation of Australian involvement, Tribune could not recognise the underlying logic in Labor's call for peace initiatives in Vietnam while supp. orting the US Alliance, 24-2-64, p. 2.

42 CPD (H of R) vol. 50 22-3-66 pp. 432, 435.

43 See T. Uren CPD (H of R) vol. 45 25-3-655, p. 347, vol. 47 19-8-65, p. 249-250, vol. 50 22-3-66, p. 432, vol. 58 28-3-68, p. 621.

44 T. Uren CPD (H of R) vol. 50 22-3-66, p. 435

45 Uren Straight Left, p. 188

46 R. Dixon 'Issues in Labor Conflict' Australian Left Review February-March 1967, p. 39. Also see Australian Left Review April-May 1967 pp. 3-5 which is critical of Whitlam's support of the US alliance but, misleadingly, attempts to distinguish this from ALP policy; and CPA leaflet for the November 1967 Senate election (Riley Collection, National Library of Australia 'Communist Party NSW' file).

47 H. Stein 'Who won in Adelaide? The victory went to Labor as a whole' Tribune 9-8-67, p. 3 and editorial Tribune 16-8-67. Also see 'Ivan Dixon's' 'The Coalition of the Left' Socialist Perspective 4, April 1968 pp. 2-13 which is an impressive discussion of the logic of Communist policy in the anti-war movement and its broader strategy, to be contrasted with Murphy's in Harvest of Fear,; and 'A Socialist Strategy for the Anti-War Movement' Direct Action September 1970, p. 8.

48 'Vietnam: Time To Rethink' Statement by the Queensland State Committee of the CPA, 12-2-68 (Riley Pamphlet Collection, National Library of Australia 'Communist Party of Australia Qld' file) and the report of the CPA National Committee meeting of 12-2-68 in Tribune 14-2-68, also Australian Left Review Aril-May 1968, p. 2. Tribune 'Foreign Editor Malcolm Salmon's review of Cairns's The Eagle and the Lotus  is devoid of even friendly criticism of his conception of Australia's relationship with the USA Australian Left Review February-March 1970 pp. 71-75.

49 CPD (H of R) vol. 58 28-3-68, p. 623.

50 'Diggers for Dollars ...' Queensland Vietnam Moratorium Campaign Co-ordinating Committee, Brisbane 1970 (Riley Collection NLA, 'Queensland Vietnam Moratorium Co-ordinating Committee' file). Note, however, that this leaflet, with its arguments about US imperialism, was probably produced by on and to the left of the CPA rather than those in agreement with the Party's position in the campaign, B. Laver 'Towards the Spring offensive' in The Communist Party is behind this Moratorium-way behind B. Laver, Brisbane 1970. This phrase was used by the Queensland Seamen's Union Secretary in 1965, Fitzgerald 'Vietnam ... Queensland maritime workers demonstrate'. Aarons made a similar argument in 1965 'Menzies' Undeclared War'.

51 'Stop Work Friday 18th Sept to Stop the War' W. Rigby for the Trade Union Moratorium Committee, Sydney 1970 (leaflet, Riley Collection NLA, 'Vietnam Moratorium NSW' file).

52 Sydney Morning Herald 1-7-71, p. 2.

53 Aarons, CPA National Secretary, 'Anti-war Perspectives-A Communist View', pp. 25-26. This article was a paper presented at the National Anti-War Conference in Sydney, 17-21 February 1971. Aarons makes a valuable point about the importance of industrial action against the War. Also B. Taft, Victorian President of the CPA, 'Debate in the Anti-war Movement' Australian Left Review May 1971 pp. 15-20. An underlying political argument of Murphy Harvest of Fear is a defence of the CPA's position, see particularly pp. 245, 254-58. For positions critical of the CPA and Labor left see D. Cassidy 'Power grows out of the barrel of a gestetner' in The Communist Party is behind this Moratorium-way behind; Bob Gould 'Honeymoon over: The Decline and Fall of the Left Coalition' Old Mole 3 29-6-1970 discusses the CPA's tactics in the movement; D. Vines 'National Anti-war Conference' Farrago 1-3-71 pp. 7-8. While the CPA was hostile to the slogan being raised by the Moratorium campaign, Denis Freney spray-painted 'Victory to the NLF' on the boards of the Sydney Stock Exchange in a stunt with a handful of people, including other members of the staff of the Party's newspaper, Tribune, in 1970, Freney A Map of Days, p. 272.

54 This was the Maoist position at the 19 July 1970 Vietnam Moratorium Campaign sponsors' meeting, see Saunders 'The Vietnam Moratorium Movement in Australia', p. 169. The tone of 'anti-imperialist' material could be just as reasoned as that presenting more moderate explanations and demands, see 'What's So Special About Vietnam' leaflet produced by 'an alliance of radical student and worker groups', (probably April) 1970 (Riley Collection, National Library of Australia 'Vietnam Moratorium South Australia'.

55 B. J. Costar 'The Moratorium-Where Now?' Semper Floreat 1-9-71, p. 19. For similar arguments see H. van Moorst 'King and Country and Revolution' Farrago 1-9-71, p. 10.

56 H. McQueen 'A Single Spark' Arena 16 1968 p51; R. Gordon 'An Overview' in R. Gordon (ed.) The Australian New Left Heinemann, Melbourne 1970, p. 27. Of course there was still supp. ort amongst students for analyses like those of the ALP; see, for example, R. Anderson 'Australia's Foreign Policy: White or Wong' National U (newspaper of the National Union of Australian University Students) 16-9-68 pp. 6-7. C. A. Rootes 'The development of radical student movements and their sequelae' Australian Journal of Politics and History 34 (2) 1988 pp. 173-186.

57 For the development of student politics and particularly the Maoist current at Monash see M. Hyde (ed.) It is Right to Rebel The Diplomat, Canberra 1972.

58 See the report from the Monash University teach-in Farrago 6-10-67, p. 3 for an equation of the positions of Gough Whitlam and Malcolm Fraser.

59 J. Jolliffe 'The Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist)' Socialist Review 2(1) February 1972, p. 20; B. York Student Revolt Nicholas Press, Canberra 1989 p40.

60 Murphy Harvest of Fear, p. 225.

61 Defeat U.S. Imperialism Communist Party of Australia (ML) (Riley Collection NLA, 'Communist Party of Australia Qld' file). Also see Australians develop struggle against US imperialism Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist) Melbourne, April 1970.

62 See the favourable editorial on Monash students raising funds for the NLF in National U 28-7-57. For the Maoist stance in the Moratorium see Langley A Decade of Dissent, pp. 134-135.

63 J. Davidson and S. Thomas 'Conscription: the case for non-registration in 1971' Draft Resisters' Union (before June) 1971 (national leaflet, Riley Collection NLA, 'Draft Resisters' Union' file). On the history of the DRU see M. Hammel-Green 'The Resisters' in King Australia's Vietnam, pp. 101-128

64 'Exploitation and Draft Resistance' Draft Resisters' Union, Brisbane 1970 or 1971 also see 'Why Register for National Service?' Draft Resisters' Union, Brisbane (both leaflets, Riley Collection NLA, 'Draft Resisters' Union' file) and 'National Draft Resisters' Conference 18th & 19th September 1971: Statement' late 1971 or 1972 (leaflet, Riley Collection NLA, 'Draft Resisters' Union' file).

65 Moratorium News April 1972, p. 1. The editorial in this issue maintained that 'The intensive exploitation of world markets, resources, and labour by giant corporations (mainly US corporations) is the underlying cause behind the war and these domestic crises [in Australia:] ... pollution, poverty, unemployment, inadequate pensions, etc.'

66 Andrew Taylor Vietnam Voices special issue of Overland 54, 1973.

67 H. McQueen A New Britannia Penguin, Ringwood 1970 also see 'Glory without Power' in J. Playford and D. Kirsner Australian Capitalism, 1972 pp. 345-376. McQueen did not reject nationalism per se and later made it clear that he favoured a genuine nationalism, see his 'National Independence and Socialism' Melbourne Journal of Politics 9, 1977, p. 76 and 'Afterword' A New Britannia third edition Penguin, Ringwood 1986, p. 254. Also see 'Living off Asia', p. 15.

68 R. Catley and B. McFarlane From Tweedledum to Tweedledee Australian and New Zealand Book Company, Sydney 1974 provides a bibliographic guide to the development of the new, left critique of the ALP, p. 9.

69 K. Rowley 'Dr Cairns on Tariffs: Planning, Imperialism and Socialism' Farrago 29-7-71; K. Rowley 'The Political Economy of Australia since the War' in Playford and Kirsner Australian Capitalism, pp. 302-314; personal communication with Kelvin Rowley.

70 See P. Moore 'Australian Capitalism Today' Intervention 1, April 1972 pp. 27-42 was critical of nationalism but stressed, like the SYA/SWL 'the basic weakness of the Australian bourgeoisie'. Also see the editorial in this issue. David Evans, who had explored the nature of Australian sub-imperialism with J. Blackley in a paper presented to the National Anti-war Conference in Sydney in February 1971 (National Library of Australia J. Jolliffe Papers MS 4969) was a member of Intervention's Editorial Group.

71 B. Berzins. and T. Irving 'History and the New Left' in R. Gordon (ed.) The Australian New Left: Critical Essays and Strategy Heinemann, Melbourne 1970 pp. 66-94.

72 O'Lincoln Into the Mainstream, p. 143. For the early history of the student movement in Brisbane before the development of a consistent anarchist perspective see D. O'Neill 'The Growth of the Radical Movement' Semper Floreat 17-3-1969.

73 'Australia in Imperialist World Strategy and the Tasks of the Revolutionary Marxists (Resolution of conference of the Australian Section of the Fourth International, 11, 12 September, 1965)' International: Organ of the Australian Section of the Fourth International 46 September 1965, pp. 2, 5, 3. Also see D. Freney 'The Crisis of Australian Imperialism' International 9(72) September-November 1969, pp. 1-4; and Ivan Dixon Socialist Perspective 3, May 1967, p. 9. Ivan Dixon was a collective pseudonym used by people involved in the Socialist Perspective group, including Bob Gould and Roger Barnes. Their organisation had broken from the International Group in 1966 and was associated with the Unified Secretariat of the Fourth International.

74 Gould had been a member of the International Group and then the organisation around the bulletin Socialist Perspective. Greenland was a member of the International group and edited the Sydney University student newspaper Honi Soit in 1968.

75 On Gould's role see Ann Curthoys, a member of the VAC, in Langley A Decade of Dissent, p. 62; Sydney Morning Herald 15-4-66, p. 2. For the radical influence of the Trotskyists in Sydney see A. Curthoys 'Mobilising Dissent: The Later Stages of Protest' in G. Pemberton (ed.) Vietnam Remembered Weldon, Sydney 1990, p. 147; and P. Scherer's report on the 1965 ASLF Conference Lot's Wife 14-6-65. R. Summy 'Militancy and the Australian Peace Movement' Politics 5(2) 1970 pp. 148-162 deals with the divisions between moderates and militants in the movement. Nick Origlass, of the International group argued for campaigning around organising aid for the NLF and a US defeat in Vietnam in early 1967, 'Socialism: A Transitional Policy' Australian Left Review February-March 1967, p. 45. In an early Vietnam Action Committee leaflet explained Australia's involvement in terms of US policy, though this viewpoint did not persist 'Vietnam: Why Must the Protest Go On?' Mitchell Library.

76 Vietnam Action 1(1) April 1967, p. 3. Also see VAC leaflets 'Why We Are Fighting in Vietnam' 1965, 'What Made this Diplomat Resign' (Riley Collection NLA, 'Vietnam Action Committee' file); Vietnam Action Committee Newsletter February 1966, 9-4-66; and Vietnam Action 1(3) August 1967, p. 3 which argues that the slogan 'end-the-bombing, negotiate-now' may be a trap which concedes too much to the position of the United States.

77 'Mass Action and the Antiwar Movement: A Strategy for Socialists' Direct Action May 1971 pp. 10-11. P. Sanford, associated with another Trotskyist current, similarly argued that 'in many respects, Australia's relation to Japan is that of colony to imperialist power' but that 'these points have to be made without succumbing to racism or the supp. ort of national capital against Japanese capital' paper presented to the National Antiwar Conference, Sydney February 1971 (National Library of Australia J. Jolliffe Papers MS 4969).

78 Ivan Dixon 'A Ruling Class in Decay: The Australian Bourgeoisie and Imperialism' Socialist Review (the SWL's journal) 2 (2) May 1972, p. 19.

79 'Mass Action and the Antiwar Movement: A Strategy for Socialists',

80 'A Socialist Strategy for the Anti-War Movement' Direct Action September 1970 (the first issue), p. 8; M. Stuart 'Labor's Viet. Record' Direct Action 9-11-72 pp. 9, 14.

81 J. McIlroy 'Foreign Takeovers' Direct Action 22-5-72, p. 13. Also J. McIlroy 'Foreign Investment and the ALP' Direct Action 9-11-72

82 'A Socialist Strategy for the Anti-War Movement' loc. cit.; 'Mass Action and the Antiwar Movement: A Strategy for Socialists' loc. cit.; 'Moratorium More or Less' Direct Action 9-8-71 pp. 4-5; P. Conrick 'Which way for the moratorium?' Direct Action 1-3-72, p. 5.

83 quoted in G. Pemberton All the Way: Australia's Road to Vietnam, Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1987, p. 313.

84 For example, see the widely reproduced arguments of H. Levien Vietnam: Myth & Reality Harold Levien, Sydney 1967, also see University Study Group on Vietnam Vietnam and Australia,

85 CPD vol H. of R. 45 23-3-65 pp. 233. This argument paralleled the more confidential explanation of US calculations by 'Assistant Secretary of Defense John McNaughton who in late March [1965] assigned relative weights to various American objectives in Vietnam': 'To avoid humiliating US defeat (to our reputation as a guarantor),' 70 per cent, 'to keep SVN (and then adjacent) territory from Chinese hands,' 20 per cent and 'to permit the people of SVN enjoy a better, freer way of life,' 10 per cent, The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, Volume IV, The Senator Gravel Edition, Beacon Press, Boston 1971, p. 22.

86 Kolko Vietnam, p. 73. Also see G. Kolko The Roots of American Foreign Policy: An Analysis of Power and Purpose Beacon, Boston 1969, pp. xv, 78. Michael Hammel-Green expressed a similar view in Australia, 'Although American economic interests are not directly present in Vietnam, the war is a test of whether American military security for her economic hegemony over the rest of the Third World can be successfully challenged by popular revolutionary guerilla movements. Hence American leaders' talk of the necessity of showing that "wars of national liberation" are bound to fail.' 'Vietnam: Beyond Pity' Dissent Winter 1970, p. 33.

87 J. Howard 'Menzies minus the myths' Weekend Australian 12-13 November 1994 Books Section, p. 5.

88 J. Richardson 'Australian Strategic and Defence Policies' G. Greenwood and N. Harper Australia in World Affairs 1974, p. 239. Also see M. Teichmann (ed.) 'Introduction' New Directions in Australian Foreign Policy Penguin, Ringwood 1969, p. 11.

89 Pemberton All the Way, p. 333.

90 N. Harper 'Australia and the United States (with special reference to South-East Asia)' in G. Greenwood and N. Harper Australia in World Affairs 1963, p. 169

91 D. Jenkins 'How we blundered into 'Nam' Sydney Morning Herald 1 January 1996 Opinion Section, p. 9; M. Sexton War for the Asking: Australia's Vietnam Secrets Penguin, Ringwood 1981 pp. 41, 136-156; G. Clark 'The Vietnam Debate Revisited' Quadrant 33 (10) October 1989, p. 10. Additional details are available in the conservative official history, P. Edwards and G. Pemberton Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948-1965 Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1992 pp. 358-375.

92 Pemberton All the Way, p. 319.

93 R. Leaver 'Patterns of Dependence in Post-war Australian Foreign Policy' Australian Political Studies Association Conference, University of NSW September 24-27 1989.

94 See T. O'Lincoln 'The new Australian militarism' Socialist Review (Melbourne) 4 Winter 1991 pp. 27-47 for Australian foreign policy in the 1990s and D. Glanz 'Gulf War: lessons of the movement' Socialist Review (Melbourne) 4 Winter 1991 pp. 126-151 for different accounts of Australian involvement in the conflict within the anti-war movement.

close endnotes